That CIGS film acts as a direct bandgap semiconductor and forms a heterojunction, as the bandgaps of the two different materials are unequal. We show how EDXRF will determine layer thicknesses in the CIGS stack and how GIXRD measures Zn1-XMgX layers with varying Mg concentrations in order to characterize the crystalline growth of the material as the quantity of Mg varies. However, commercial CIGS cells have lower efficiencies, with most modules attaining about 14 percent conversion. Spray pyrolysis is a versatile solution-based growth technique that yields high-quality ZnO films. There electron-hole pairs are formed. A schematic of the layer structure of a typical CIGS cell is Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin film solar cells are now in production for energy conversion devices. Source: pv-magazine. Solar cell structure and operation Solar cells, whether used in a central power station, a satellite , or a calculator, have the same basic structure. In a CIGS thin film solar cell, the buffer layer is interposed between the absorber layer and the window layer, which plays an important role in interface electricity. They can be integrated into vehicles such as tractor trailers, airplanes, and cars, as their low profile minimizes air resistance and they do not add significant weight. The thin-film cell is deposited onto a substrate, such as soda-lime glass, metal, or a polyamide film, to form the rear surface contact. Owing to this problem, solar cell developers are exploring alternative materials. That CIGS film acts as a direct bandgap semiconductor and forms a heterojunction, as the bandgaps of the two different materials are unequal. Efficient sunlight absorption can be achieved in CIGS layers as thin as 1 µm, 100 times thinner than a crystalline silicon solar cell4, as evidenced in Figure 1. Previously 6, 7, it has been shown that a similar rear contacting structure can be used to passivate the rear CIGS interface of CIGS solar cells. This method is easy to upscale, making it suitable for large area depositions. CIGS Cell using CdS Buffer. The structure of the solar cell is (Ni/Al)/MgF 2 /ZnO:B/i-ZnO/CdS/OVC/CIGS/Mo/substrate (Figure 1). The world-record NREL CIGS device is based on this substrate structure and demonstrates a conversion efficiency of 20.0%. Your email address will not be published. Copper, gallium, and indium are deposited in turn and annealed with a selenide vapour, resulting in the final CIGS structure. Omissions? Required fields are marked *, Privacy StatementTerms & ConditionsLocationsSitemap. Courtesy Shou-Yi Kuo, Chang Gung Univ., via Creative Commons. In IBC struc- The structure of polycrystalline thin-film cells contains many tiny crystalline grains of semiconductor materials. This cell provides a high absorption coefficient, high temperature stability, and is low-cost compared to other collection materials. The CIGS-based solar cells are easy to fabricate compared to c-Si based solar cells by growing it on various rigid and flexible substrates by vacuum and non-vacuum techniques; thus, CIGS-based solar cells are promising candidates for the next-generation power-efficient solar cells (Adel et al., 2016, Badgujar et al., 2015, Chen et al., 2017a, Chen et al., 2014, Choi and Lee, 2007, Delahoy et al., … Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) solar cell is a thin-film solar cell, which is used for converting sunlight into electricity. Deposition can be done without a vacuum, using nanoparticles or electroplating, though those techniques require more development to be economically efficient at a large-scale. A CIGS solar cell consists of several layers of materials, with Cu (In1Ga)Se2 as the energy absorber layer sandwiched between a substrate, electrical contacts, and a buffer layer. That separates the electrons from the holes and allows them to generate an electrical current (see also solar cell). Solar cells were characterized with current-voltage (J-V) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) measure- ments. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. It is manufactured by depositing a thin layer of copper, indium, gallium and selenium on glass or plastic backing, … CdS is used optionally and some CIGS cells contain no cadmium at all. Modeling of CIGS single–junction solar cell using multiple quantum well structure with enhanced efficiency December 2020 Optical and Quantum Electronics 52(12) In 2014, laboratory experiments produced a record efficiency of 23.2 percent by a CIGS cell with a modified surface structure. 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